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Bible lacks concept of mental illness.

Harikrish
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1/26/2020 9:15:58 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
At 4/18/2015 10:07:41 AM, Harikrish wrote:
Christians are led to believe all their problems stem from sin, spiritual weakness and demonic influences. There is little change in their attitudes towards the medical science that defines mental illness as physiological with little or no relationship to ones belief systems. The clergy still look to scriptures to deal with mental illness and its spiritual causes. They are not convinced there is medical evidence for the cause of mental illness. It is this denial and ignorance that leaves mentally ill Christians helpless to deal with their illness and are further burdened with archaic remedies that have no scientific basis.

Modern psychiatry diagnosed a few of the early biblical characters to uncover the cause for their extreme beliefs and world views riddled with a fantasma of delusions and self deception.

Here is how they diagnosed Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Paul:

a. "ABRAHAM: He is described as having had interactive mystical experiences of an auditory and visual nature (see Figure 1), that influenced his behaviors throughout most of his life (see Table 1). This phenomenology closely resembles that described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Applying the DSM-IV-TR paradigm, Abraham"s auditory and visual perceptual experiences and behaviors could be understood as auditory hallucinations (AH), visual hallucinations (VH), delusions with religious content, and paranoid-type (schizophrenia subtype) thought content (see Table 1 for examples). " Abraham"s clinical profile would appear to best resemble that of Paranoid Schizophrenic or Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, and perhaps, less likely, an affective disorder-related psychosis. Abraham stands as the earliest case of a possible psychotic disorder in literature." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

b. "MOSES: Moses had perceptual experiences and behaviors that find closest parallel today with the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of command Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, hyperreligiosity, grandiosity, delusions, paranoia, referential thinking, and phobia (about people viewing his face). (See Table 3 for examples.) Many of these features may occur together in schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. Moses also did not appear to have any disorganization, catatonia, or negative psychiatric symptoms, or difficulties with concentration, attention, and memory (see Table 2). Criterion A for schizophrenia could theoretically be fulfilled by his experiences that resemble delusions and hallucinations. In fulfillment of Criterion B, Moses" social and occupational functioning could be said to have declined from that of a presumably educated member of the Egyptian royal family to having fled Egyptian society to become a shepherd working on the periphery of the desert in a foreign land (Exodus 2: 15"22). His flight from Egypt occurred before the onset of Auditory Hallucinations and Visual Hallucinations, thereby suggesting a prodromal decline in functioning before the onset of psychosis. A prodrome refers to the early symptoms and signs of an illness that precede the characteristic manifestations of the acute, fully developed illness. A prodromal period may precede the onset of schizophrenia by months to up to 10 years in 70% of patients33 and up to 20 years in some cases. The period over which Moses had these experiences was in excess of 40 years, fulfilling Criterion " It should be noted that the religious writings attributed to Moses" authorship, the Pentateuch, could suggest the presence of an exaggerated urge to write. Such hypergraphia is a nonspecific finding more commonly associated with mania, hypomania, or mixed states; however, it is also a feature of schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. " Therefore, mood disorder-associated psychoses remain quite viable in the case of Moses. " The criteria for diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia would be fulfilled by the pre-dominance of delusions and hallucinations in the absence of disorganization, negative psychiatric symptoms, or cognitive impairment. An increased propensity for violence has been observed in some individuals with Paranoid Schizophrenia Moses" increased propensity for violence could be viewed as corroborative for a diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia. Reasonable diagnostic alternatives might include Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. If the first five books of the bible are credited to Moses" authorship, then a bipolar disorder or perhaps schizoaffective disorder would be more compatible with his writing abilities." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

c. "JESUS: The New Testament (NT) recalls Jesus as having experienced and shown behavior closely resembling the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, delusions, referential thinking (see Figure 3), paranoid-type (Paranoid Schizophrenic subtype) thought content, and hyperreligiosity " In terms of potential causes of perceptual and behavioral changes, it might be asked whether starvation and metabolic derangements were present. The hallucinatory-like experiences that Jesus had in the desert while he fasted for 40 days (Luke 4:1"13) may have been induced by starvation and metabolic derangements. " The absence of physical maladies or apparent epilepsy leaves primary psychiatric etiologies as more plausible. As seen with the previous cases, Jesus" experiences can be potentially conceptualized within the framework of Paranoid Schizophrenia or Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Other reasonable possibilities might include bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. There is a 5%-10% lifetime risk of suicide in persons with schizophrenia. Suicide is defined as a self-inflicted death with evidence of an intention to end one"s life. The New Testament recounts Jesus" awareness that people intended to kill him and his taking steps to avoid peril until the time at which he permitted his apprehension. In advance, he explained to his followers the necessity of his death as prelude for his return (Matthew 16:21"28; Mark 8:31; John 16:16"28). If this occurred in the manner described, then Jesus appears to have deliberately placed himself in circumstances wherein he anticipated his execution. Although schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of suicide, this would not be a typical case. The more common mood-disorder accompaniments of suicide, such as depression, hopelessness, and social isolation, were not present, but other risk factors, such as age and male gender, were present. Suicide-by-proxy is described as "any incident in which a suicidal individual causes his or her death to be carried out by another person." There is a potential parallel of Jesus" beliefs and behavior leading up to his death to that of one who premeditates a form of suicide-by-proxy." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)
Harikrish
Posts: 29,658
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1/29/2020 10:15:29 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
At 4/18/2015 10:07:41 AM, Harikrish wrote:
Christians are led to believe all their problems stem from sin, spiritual weakness and demonic influences. There is little change in their attitudes towards the medical science that defines mental illness as physiological with little or no relationship to ones belief systems. The clergy still look to scriptures to deal with mental illness and its spiritual causes. They are not convinced there is medical evidence for the cause of mental illness. It is this denial and ignorance that leaves mentally ill Christians helpless to deal with their illness and are further burdened with archaic remedies that have no scientific basis.

Modern psychiatry diagnosed a few of the early biblical characters to uncover the cause for their extreme beliefs and world views riddled with a fantasma of delusions and self deception.

Here is how they diagnosed Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Paul:

a. "ABRAHAM: He is described as having had interactive mystical experiences of an auditory and visual nature (see Figure 1), that influenced his behaviors throughout most of his life (see Table 1). This phenomenology closely resembles that described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Applying the DSM-IV-TR paradigm, Abraham"s auditory and visual perceptual experiences and behaviors could be understood as auditory hallucinations (AH), visual hallucinations (VH), delusions with religious content, and paranoid-type (schizophrenia subtype) thought content (see Table 1 for examples). " Abraham"s clinical profile would appear to best resemble that of Paranoid Schizophrenic or Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, and perhaps, less likely, an affective disorder-related psychosis. Abraham stands as the earliest case of a possible psychotic disorder in literature." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

b. "MOSES: Moses had perceptual experiences and behaviors that find closest parallel today with the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of command Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, hyperreligiosity, grandiosity, delusions, paranoia, referential thinking, and phobia (about people viewing his face). (See Table 3 for examples.) Many of these features may occur together in schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. Moses also did not appear to have any disorganization, catatonia, or negative psychiatric symptoms, or difficulties with concentration, attention, and memory (see Table 2). Criterion A for schizophrenia could theoretically be fulfilled by his experiences that resemble delusions and hallucinations. In fulfillment of Criterion B, Moses" social and occupational functioning could be said to have declined from that of a presumably educated member of the Egyptian royal family to having fled Egyptian society to become a shepherd working on the periphery of the desert in a foreign land (Exodus 2: 15"22). His flight from Egypt occurred before the onset of Auditory Hallucinations and Visual Hallucinations, thereby suggesting a prodromal decline in functioning before the onset of psychosis. A prodrome refers to the early symptoms and signs of an illness that precede the characteristic manifestations of the acute, fully developed illness. A prodromal period may precede the onset of schizophrenia by months to up to 10 years in 70% of patients33 and up to 20 years in some cases. The period over which Moses had these experiences was in excess of 40 years, fulfilling Criterion " It should be noted that the religious writings attributed to Moses" authorship, the Pentateuch, could suggest the presence of an exaggerated urge to write. Such hypergraphia is a nonspecific finding more commonly associated with mania, hypomania, or mixed states; however, it is also a feature of schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. " Therefore, mood disorder-associated psychoses remain quite viable in the case of Moses. " The criteria for diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia would be fulfilled by the pre-dominance of delusions and hallucinations in the absence of disorganization, negative psychiatric symptoms, or cognitive impairment. An increased propensity for violence has been observed in some individuals with Paranoid Schizophrenia Moses" increased propensity for violence could be viewed as corroborative for a diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia. Reasonable diagnostic alternatives might include Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. If the first five books of the bible are credited to Moses" authorship, then a bipolar disorder or perhaps schizoaffective disorder would be more compatible with his writing abilities." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

c. "JESUS: The New Testament (NT) recalls Jesus as having experienced and shown behavior closely resembling the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, delusions, referential thinking (see Figure 3), paranoid-type (Paranoid Schizophrenic subtype) thought content, and hyperreligiosity " In terms of potential causes of perceptual and behavioral changes, it might be asked whether starvation and metabolic derangements were present. The hallucinatory-like experiences that Jesus had in the desert while he fasted for 40 days (Luke 4:1"13) may have been induced by starvation and metabolic derangements. " The absence of physical maladies or apparent epilepsy leaves primary psychiatric etiologies as more plausible. As seen with the previous cases, Jesus" experiences can be potentially conceptualized within the framework of Paranoid Schizophrenia or Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Other reasonable possibilities might include bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. There is a 5%-10% lifetime risk of suicide in persons with schizophrenia. Suicide is defined as a self-inflicted death with evidence of an intention to end one"s life. The New Testament recounts Jesus" awareness that people intended to kill him and his taking steps to avoid peril until the time at which he permitted his apprehension. In advance, he explained to his followers the necessity of his death as prelude for his return (Matthew 16:21"28; Mark 8:31; John 16:16"28). If this occurred in the manner described, then Jesus appears to have deliberately placed himself in circumstances wherein he anticipated his execution. Although schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of suicide, this would not be a typical case. The more common mood-disorder accompaniments of suicide, such as depression, hopelessness, and social isolation, were not present, but other risk factors, such as age and male gender, were present. Suicide-by-proxy is described as "any incident in which a suicidal individual causes his or her death to be carried out by another person." There is a potential parallel of Jesus" beliefs and behavior leading up to his death to that of one who premeditates a form of suicide-by-proxy." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)
Harikrish
Posts: 29,658
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2/2/2020 3:44:37 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
At 4/18/2015 10:07:41 AM, Harikrish wrote:
Christians are led to believe all their problems stem from sin, spiritual weakness and demonic influences. There is little change in their attitudes towards the medical science that defines mental illness as physiological with little or no relationship to ones belief systems. The clergy still look to scriptures to deal with mental illness and its spiritual causes. They are not convinced there is medical evidence for the cause of mental illness. It is this denial and ignorance that leaves mentally ill Christians helpless to deal with their illness and are further burdened with archaic remedies that have no scientific basis.

Modern psychiatry diagnosed a few of the early biblical characters to uncover the cause for their extreme beliefs and world views riddled with a fantasma of delusions and self deception.

Here is how they diagnosed Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Paul:

a. "ABRAHAM: He is described as having had interactive mystical experiences of an auditory and visual nature (see Figure 1), that influenced his behaviors throughout most of his life (see Table 1). This phenomenology closely resembles that described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Applying the DSM-IV-TR paradigm, Abraham"s auditory and visual perceptual experiences and behaviors could be understood as auditory hallucinations (AH), visual hallucinations (VH), delusions with religious content, and paranoid-type (schizophrenia subtype) thought content (see Table 1 for examples). " Abraham"s clinical profile would appear to best resemble that of Paranoid Schizophrenic or Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, and perhaps, less likely, an affective disorder-related psychosis. Abraham stands as the earliest case of a possible psychotic disorder in literature." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

b. "MOSES: Moses had perceptual experiences and behaviors that find closest parallel today with the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of command Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, hyperreligiosity, grandiosity, delusions, paranoia, referential thinking, and phobia (about people viewing his face). (See Table 3 for examples.) Many of these features may occur together in schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. Moses also did not appear to have any disorganization, catatonia, or negative psychiatric symptoms, or difficulties with concentration, attention, and memory (see Table 2). Criterion A for schizophrenia could theoretically be fulfilled by his experiences that resemble delusions and hallucinations. In fulfillment of Criterion B, Moses" social and occupational functioning could be said to have declined from that of a presumably educated member of the Egyptian royal family to having fled Egyptian society to become a shepherd working on the periphery of the desert in a foreign land (Exodus 2: 15"22). His flight from Egypt occurred before the onset of Auditory Hallucinations and Visual Hallucinations, thereby suggesting a prodromal decline in functioning before the onset of psychosis. A prodrome refers to the early symptoms and signs of an illness that precede the characteristic manifestations of the acute, fully developed illness. A prodromal period may precede the onset of schizophrenia by months to up to 10 years in 70% of patients33 and up to 20 years in some cases. The period over which Moses had these experiences was in excess of 40 years, fulfilling Criterion " It should be noted that the religious writings attributed to Moses" authorship, the Pentateuch, could suggest the presence of an exaggerated urge to write. Such hypergraphia is a nonspecific finding more commonly associated with mania, hypomania, or mixed states; however, it is also a feature of schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. " Therefore, mood disorder-associated psychoses remain quite viable in the case of Moses. " The criteria for diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia would be fulfilled by the pre-dominance of delusions and hallucinations in the absence of disorganization, negative psychiatric symptoms, or cognitive impairment. An increased propensity for violence has been observed in some individuals with Paranoid Schizophrenia Moses" increased propensity for violence could be viewed as corroborative for a diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia. Reasonable diagnostic alternatives might include Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. If the first five books of the bible are credited to Moses" authorship, then a bipolar disorder or perhaps schizoaffective disorder would be more compatible with his writing abilities." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

c. "JESUS: The New Testament (NT) recalls Jesus as having experienced and shown behavior closely resembling the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, delusions, referential thinking (see Figure 3), paranoid-type (Paranoid Schizophrenic subtype) thought content, and hyperreligiosity " In terms of potential causes of perceptual and behavioral changes, it might be asked whether starvation and metabolic derangements were present. The hallucinatory-like experiences that Jesus had in the desert while he fasted for 40 days (Luke 4:1"13) may have been induced by starvation and metabolic derangements. " The absence of physical maladies or apparent epilepsy leaves primary psychiatric etiologies as more plausible. As seen with the previous cases, Jesus" experiences can be potentially conceptualized within the framework of Paranoid Schizophrenia or Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Other reasonable possibilities might include bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. There is a 5%-10% lifetime risk of suicide in persons with schizophrenia. Suicide is defined as a self-inflicted death with evidence of an intention to end one"s life. The New Testament recounts Jesus" awareness that people intended to kill him and his taking steps to avoid peril until the time at which he permitted his apprehension. In advance, he explained to his followers the necessity of his death as prelude for his return (Matthew 16:21"28; Mark 8:31; John 16:16"28). If this occurred in the manner described, then Jesus appears to have deliberately placed himself in circumstances wherein he anticipated his execution. Although schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of suicide, this would not be a typical case. The more common mood-disorder accompaniments of suicide, such as depression, hopelessness, and social isolation, were not present, but other risk factors, such as age and male gender, were present. Suicide-by-proxy is described as "any incident in which a suicidal individual causes his or her death to be carried out by another person." There is a potential parallel of Jesus" beliefs and behavior leading up to his death to that of one who premeditates a form of suicide-by-proxy." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)
Harikrish
Posts: 29,658
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2/7/2020 6:34:08 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
At 4/18/2015 10:07:41 AM, Harikrish wrote:
Christians are led to believe all their problems stem from sin, spiritual weakness and demonic influences. There is little change in their attitudes towards the medical science that defines mental illness as physiological with little or no relationship to ones belief systems. The clergy still look to scriptures to deal with mental illness and its spiritual causes. They are not convinced there is medical evidence for the cause of mental illness. It is this denial and ignorance that leaves mentally ill Christians helpless to deal with their illness and are further burdened with archaic remedies that have no scientific basis.

Modern psychiatry diagnosed a few of the early biblical characters to uncover the cause for their extreme beliefs and world views riddled with a fantasma of delusions and self deception.

Here is how they diagnosed Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Paul:

a. "ABRAHAM: He is described as having had interactive mystical experiences of an auditory and visual nature (see Figure 1), that influenced his behaviors throughout most of his life (see Table 1). This phenomenology closely resembles that described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). Applying the DSM-IV-TR paradigm, Abraham"s auditory and visual perceptual experiences and behaviors could be understood as auditory hallucinations (AH), visual hallucinations (VH), delusions with religious content, and paranoid-type (schizophrenia subtype) thought content (see Table 1 for examples). " Abraham"s clinical profile would appear to best resemble that of Paranoid Schizophrenic or Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, and perhaps, less likely, an affective disorder-related psychosis. Abraham stands as the earliest case of a possible psychotic disorder in literature." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

b. "MOSES: Moses had perceptual experiences and behaviors that find closest parallel today with the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of command Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, hyperreligiosity, grandiosity, delusions, paranoia, referential thinking, and phobia (about people viewing his face). (See Table 3 for examples.) Many of these features may occur together in schizophrenia, affective disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. Moses also did not appear to have any disorganization, catatonia, or negative psychiatric symptoms, or difficulties with concentration, attention, and memory (see Table 2). Criterion A for schizophrenia could theoretically be fulfilled by his experiences that resemble delusions and hallucinations. In fulfillment of Criterion B, Moses" social and occupational functioning could be said to have declined from that of a presumably educated member of the Egyptian royal family to having fled Egyptian society to become a shepherd working on the periphery of the desert in a foreign land (Exodus 2: 15"22). His flight from Egypt occurred before the onset of Auditory Hallucinations and Visual Hallucinations, thereby suggesting a prodromal decline in functioning before the onset of psychosis. A prodrome refers to the early symptoms and signs of an illness that precede the characteristic manifestations of the acute, fully developed illness. A prodromal period may precede the onset of schizophrenia by months to up to 10 years in 70% of patients33 and up to 20 years in some cases. The period over which Moses had these experiences was in excess of 40 years, fulfilling Criterion " It should be noted that the religious writings attributed to Moses" authorship, the Pentateuch, could suggest the presence of an exaggerated urge to write. Such hypergraphia is a nonspecific finding more commonly associated with mania, hypomania, or mixed states; however, it is also a feature of schizophrenia and temporal lobe epilepsy. " Therefore, mood disorder-associated psychoses remain quite viable in the case of Moses. " The criteria for diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia would be fulfilled by the pre-dominance of delusions and hallucinations in the absence of disorganization, negative psychiatric symptoms, or cognitive impairment. An increased propensity for violence has been observed in some individuals with Paranoid Schizophrenia Moses" increased propensity for violence could be viewed as corroborative for a diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia. Reasonable diagnostic alternatives might include Psychotic Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified, bipolar disorder, and schizoaffective disorder. If the first five books of the bible are credited to Moses" authorship, then a bipolar disorder or perhaps schizoaffective disorder would be more compatible with his writing abilities." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

c. "JESUS: The New Testament (NT) recalls Jesus as having experienced and shown behavior closely resembling the DSM-IV-TR"defined phenomena of Auditory Hallucinations, Visual Hallucinations, delusions, referential thinking (see Figure 3), paranoid-type (Paranoid Schizophrenic subtype) thought content, and hyperreligiosity " In terms of potential causes of perceptual and behavioral changes, it might be asked whether starvation and metabolic derangements were present. The hallucinatory-like experiences that Jesus had in the desert while he fasted for 40 days (Luke 4:1"13) may have been induced by starvation and metabolic derangements. " The absence of physical maladies or apparent epilepsy leaves primary psychiatric etiologies as more plausible. As seen with the previous cases, Jesus" experiences can be potentially conceptualized within the framework of Paranoid Schizophrenia or Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified. Other reasonable possibilities might include bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. There is a 5%-10% lifetime risk of suicide in persons with schizophrenia. Suicide is defined as a self-inflicted death with evidence of an intention to end one"s life. The New Testament recounts Jesus" awareness that people intended to kill him and his taking steps to avoid peril until the time at which he permitted his apprehension. In advance, he explained to his followers the necessity of his death as prelude for his return (Matthew 16:21"28; Mark 8:31; John 16:16"28). If this occurred in the manner described, then Jesus appears to have deliberately placed himself in circumstances wherein he anticipated his execution. Although schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of suicide, this would not be a typical case. The more common mood-disorder accompaniments of suicide, such as depression, hopelessness, and social isolation, were not present, but other risk factors, such as age and male gender, were present. Suicide-by-proxy is described as "any incident in which a suicidal individual causes his or her death to be carried out by another person." There is a potential parallel of Jesus" beliefs and behavior leading up to his death to that of one who premeditates a form of suicide-by-proxy." (The Role of Psychotic Disorders in Religious History Considered, Evan D. Murray, M.D. Miles G. Cunningham, M.D., Ph.D. Bruce H. Price, M.D., The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2012; 24:410-426)

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